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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of any of a woman's pelvic organs, including the uterus, ovaries, or fallopian tubes, or the peritoneum (the membrane covering the abdominal cavity). One million women are diagnosed with PID annually in the United States, usually resulting from a sexually transmitted infection such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. It is the most common cause of female infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Acute PID comes on suddenly and tends to be more severe, whereas chronic PID is a low grade infection that may cause only mild pain and sometimes backache.
Signs and Symptoms
Acute PID is accompanied by the following signs and symptoms:
Chronic PID is accompanied by the following signs and symptoms:
What Causes It?
PID occurs when bacteria from the vagina or cervix infiltrate the normally sterile pelvic organs. PID is most commonly cause by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Who's Most At Risk?
People with the following conditions or characteristics are at risk for developing PID:
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office
If you are experiencing symptoms associated with PID, see your health care provider. You may receive a combination of a physical exam, lab tests, imaging, including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other procedures may also be performed to make a diagnosis. In some cases, your physician may order laparoscopic evaluation. Laparoscopy offers physicians the ability to diagnose and treat PID simultaneously.
Barrier methods of birth control (such as condoms, diaphragms, and vaginal spermicides) reduce the risk of PID. Rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of lower urinary tract infections can help prevent PID from developing. Experts recommend routine screening for infections in high risk individuals.
Your health care provider may recommend hospitalization or outpatient treatment with follow up. Outpatient therapy consists of rest and medications, usually antibiotics. Patients being treated for PID should abstain from sexual intercourse throughout the course of treatment. It is essential to evaluate and treat male sex partners. It's important to initiate treatment immediately after diagnosis to prevent long term complications.
Your provider may prescribe the following antibiotics or combination of drugs:
Surgical and Other Procedures
Some conditions, such as an abscess in the ovary or fallopian tube, may require surgery.
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
A comprehensive treatment plan for PID may include a range of complementary and alternative therapies. PID can lead to serious complications. Complementary therapies should be used only in conjunction with conventional medical interventions. Keep all of your prescribing doctors informed about any supplements or therapies you may be using.
Nutrition and Supplements
You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:
Herbs are one way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to diagnose your problem before starting treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 - 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 - 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 - 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.
Castor Oil Packs
Dampen a cloth with castor oil, and apply to the abdomen. Cover with saran wrap, then apply a heating pad over this pack. Used for 1 - 3 hours, castor oil packs can reduce cramping and pain in some patients. Do not use caster oil packs during the acute phase of PID.
Acupuncture may help enhance immune function and reduce pain and inflammation, especially in women with chronic PID. Acupuncturists often target their protocols to draining what they call “Damp Heat” from the area. This is done using both acupuncture and Chinese herbal preparations.
Prognosis and Possible Complications
In 85% of cases, the initial treatment succeeds. In 75% of cases, patients do not experience a recurrence of the infection. However, when there is a recurrence, the likelihood of infertility increases with each episode of PID. Potential complications from PID include:
Your health care provider will schedule a follow up visit 48 - 72 hours after treatment is started to assess your response to the medications. If you are diagnosed with PID, you should inform any sexual partners so that they can be examined and treated if the infection has been transmitted.
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Review Date: 7/3/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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