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Diuretics - thiazide diuretics

Index > Depletions > Diuretics - thiazide diuretics     Print

Medications
Depletions
Editorial Note
Supporting Research

Medications

  • Chlorothiazide
    • Diuril
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
    • Aquazide
    • Esidrix
    • Ezide
    • Hydrocot
    • HydroDIURIL
    • Microzide
    • Oretic
  • Indapamide
    • Lozol
  • Methyclothiazide
    • Aquatensen
    • Enduron
  • Metolazone
    • Mykrox
    • Zaroxolyn

Depletions

Chloride, Sodium

Sodium deficiency is rare because it's widely available in dietary sources. When it does occur, depleted levels have been associated with gas, nausea and vomiting, headache, memory impairment, diminished attention, muscle weakness, heart palpitations, lethargy, and confusion. Extreme cases can cause stupor, seizures, and possibly coma. The development of symptoms depends on the rate of sodium loss.

Coenzyme Q10

A deficiency of the antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 may be associated with long-term conditions including heart disease and high blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include gingivitis and weakened immune function.

Magnesium

Magnesium deficiency affects calcium and vitamin D levels in the body, and may be associated with muscle cramps, heart irregularities, high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis (bone loss). Research suggests that low levels of magnesium may also be associated with headaches.

Potassium

Symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, drowsiness, feelings of apprehension, excessive thirst, irrational behavior, fatigue, and muscle pain and weakness (usually of the lower limbs). Severe cases may lead to irregular heartbeat.

Zinc

Symptoms of zinc deficiency include loss of appetite or sense of taste, growth retardation, skin changes, and increased susceptibility to infection.

Editorial Note

The information presented here covers some of the nutrients that may be lowered when you take certain medications. The signs and symptoms listed can be caused by other conditions. If you have these signs and symptoms, it doesn't always mean you have low levels of these nutrients. Many things affect the level of nutrients, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as how long you have been taking the medication. Please talk with your health care provider. He or she can best address your health care needs and see if you are at risk for low levels of any nutrients.

Supporting Research

Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.

Bissram M, Scott FD, Liu L, Rosner MH. Risk factors for symptomatic hyponatraemia: the role of pre-existing asymptomatic hyponatraemia. Intern Med J. 2007;37(3):149-55.

Bonakdar RA, Guarneri E. Coenzyme Q10. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(6):1065-70.

Felipez L, Sentongo T. Drug-Induced Nutrient Deficiencies. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2009;56(5).

Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.

Hordyjewska A, Pasternak K. Magnesium role in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(2):108-13.

Humphreys M. Potassium disturbances and associated electrocardiogram changes. Emerg Nurse. 2007;15(5):28-34.

Hussain SM, Sureshkumar KK, Marcus RJ. Recent advances in the treatment of hyponatremia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8(16):2729-41.

Liamis G, Mitrogianni Z, Liberopoulos EN, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf M. Electrolyte disturbances in patients with hyponatremia. Intern Med. 2007;46(11):685-90.

Lin SH, Halperin ML. Hypokalemia: a practical approach to diagnosis and its genetic basis. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(14):1551-65.

Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol. 2007;37(1):31-7.

Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, Gallagher S, Johnson L. Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(2):121-32.

Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:443-449.

Pepe S, Marasco SF, Haas SJ, Sheeran FL, Krum H, Rosenfeldt FL. Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrion. 2007;7 Suppl:S154-67.

Powers HJ. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1352-60.

Quinzii CM, Hirano M, DiMauro S. CoQ10 deficiency diseases in adults. Mitochondrion. 2007;7 Suppl:S122-6.

Rakel: Textbook of Family Medicine 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011.

Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Serum magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. Arch Dis Child. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Tubek S, Grzanka P, Tubek I. Role of Zinc in Hemostasis: A Review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Young AJ, Johnson S, Steffens DC, Doraiswamy PM. Coenzyme Q10: a review of its promise as a neuroprotectant. CNS Spectr. 2007;12(1):62-8.

Review Date: 9/25/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network.
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