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A cold is an upper respiratory infection caused by a virus. Colds tend to occur most often in winter, although scientists aren't sure why. In the United States, adults usually have 2 - 4 colds per year, and children have as many 10.
There is no foolproof way to prevent a cold -- and no way to cure it -- but you can treat the symptoms. Colds tend to last about a week, and can be accompanied by sore throat and cough. Unlike the flu, colds don't usually cause you to run a high fever (above 102 ° Fahrenheit).
Signs and Symptoms
Colds are caused by more than 100 different viruses, although most colds are caused by rhinoviruses. Young children with respiratory symptoms often spread rhinovirus. You can get a cold by touching a person with a cold (for example, by shaking hands) and then touching your nose or eyes, or by touching a surface that a person with a cold has touched, such as telephone or keyboard. Colds are also transmitted through the air, when someone with a cold coughs or sneezes. Although you're more likely to get a cold in winter, exposure to cold outdoor air does not increase your risk of getting sick -- but stress may do so.
People more likely to get colds include:
Most people treat colds without seeing a doctor. If you do see your doctor, the diagnosis will be made based on your symptoms and exam. He or she may take a throat culture to rule out strep throat. If you have an underlying lung condition, such as asthma or emphysema, you should let your doctor know right away when you get a cold.
Although anyone can get a cold, there are a few things that you can do that may help improve your immune system and make you less susceptible to getting colds:
With a cold, the goal of treatment is to improve your symptoms as quickly as possible. But even if you do nothing, they should go away within a week to 10 days. Antibiotics cannot help your cold. However, there are medications, herbs, supplements, and homeopathic remedies that may make you feel better while you have a cold.
Nasal irrigation -- using saline solution to flush out the nasal passages -- can help relieve cold symptoms, according to one study.
A number of over the counter medications are available to help treat cold symptoms. Children under the age of 6 should not be given any over-the-counter cold or cough medicine unless your pediatrician tells you to do so.
Decongestants -- help open your nasal passages so you can breathe easier. If decongestant nasal sprays or drops are used for more than 3 days, however, they can cause congestion to come back and get worse. Decongestants are often combined in cold medicines with antihistamines, cough suppressants, and pain relievers. People with heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, or glaucoma should not take decongestants. Popular brands of decongestants include Sudafed, Afrin, and Neo-Synephrine.
Antihistamines -- can temporarily relieve a runny nose by drying up nasal secretions. Non-drowsy antihistamines available over the counter include loratadine (Claritin), fexofenadine (Allegra), and cetirizine (Zyrtec).
Cough medicines -- cough suppressants (for a dry cough) or expectorants (for a wet, productive cough that brings up mucous) are available over the counter and by prescription.
Pain relievers -- such as aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) can be used for fever, body aches, and headaches. Children under the age of 19 should not take aspirin due to the risk of a rare but serious illness called Reye's syndrome.
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
Because supplements may have side effects or interact with medications, you should take them only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider. Be sure to talk to your physician about any supplements you are taking or considering taking.
The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care practitioner. Before giving any herbs to a child to treat a cold, talk to your pediatrician.
Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea, 300 mg 3 times per day) -- Although evidence on whether echinacea works to prevent or treat colds has gone back and forth, recent evidence is encouraging. An analysis of 14 scientific studies found that people who took echinacea reduced their risk of getting a cold by 58 percent and reduced the duration of a cold by an average of a day and a half. However, many of the studies used echinacea in combination with another herb or vitamin, so it's impossible to say which one was responsible for the benefit. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, or people taking drugs that suppress the immune system (such as corticosteroids or methotrexate), should not take echinacea without first asking their doctor. People who are allergic to ragweed should ask their health care provider before taking echinacea.
In addition to echinacea, several other herbs that are used to strengthen the immune system may also be beneficial in preventing you from catching a cold. As is true with echinacea, these herbs should not be taken by anyone taking drugs to suppress their immune system.
Although very few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider the following remedies for the treatment of the common cold based on their knowledge and experience. It is important to note, however, that cold symptoms are viewed in homeopathic medicine as the body's natural way of eliminating a virus. For this reason, homeopathic doctors may recommend no treatment at all. If a remedy is selected, usually it is intended to boost the body's natural immune response. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type. A constitutional type is defined as a person's physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for each individual.
A study of a small number of university students suggests that practicing relaxation techniques on a regular basis may help reduce the duration of a cold or the flu. A similar study of children reached the same conclusion. Some good stress reduction techniques include meditation, deep relaxation, yoga, tai chi, and breathing exercises.
Tell your health care provider if you are pregnant or think you are pregnant. Some medications, herbs, and supplements may be harmful to your baby and should not be taken if you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant.
If you have asthma, emphysema, or any other respiratory disease, you should talk to your doctor as soon as you develop cold symptoms.
Warnings and Precautions
If your symptoms aren’t better in 7 - 10 days, you should call your doctor. Other reasons to see your doctor include high fever (above 102° Fahrenheit), thick, green nasal discharge, or development of a productive cough (cough with phlegm), especially if it is thick and green as well.
Prognosis and Complications
Colds usually get better within 7 - 10 days. Some potential complications include:
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Review Date: 9/25/2011
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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